Miércoles, 06 Marzo 2019 12:31

Early Bacterial Pneumonia After Hepatic Transplantation: Epidemiologic Profile. Transplantation Proceedings

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 Revista Internacional 

 

J. Prieto Amorin, M. Lopez, K. Rando, J. Castelli, J. Medina Presentado. Early Bacterial Pneumonia After Hepatic Transplantation: Epidemiologic Profile. Transplantation Proceedings, 50, 503e508 (2018)

 

Background. Postoperative pulmonary complications are major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving liver transplantation (LT), particularly bacterial pneumonia occurring within the first 100 days after transplantation. Our aim in this study was to determine the incidence, microorganisms involved, associated factors, and morbidity of bacterial pneumonia presenting in the first 100 days posttransplant.

Methods. We performed a cohort study in which patients receiving liver transplantation were included prospectively in our national database (Database of Infections in Trans- plantation of Solid Organs). The study period was from July 14, 2009 to July 24, 2015.

Results. One hundred six patients were transplanted during the 6-year period. We documented 9 bacterial pneumonia cases with an incidence of 8.5 per 100 patients; 2 patients had hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and 7 had ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In 4 of the 9 bacterial pneumonia cases, patients presented with bacteremia. Eleven microorganisms were isolated these 9 patients. Microbiologic diagnosis methods included 5 cases of alveolar bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 1 case of BAL and pleural fluid puncture, 1 case of pleural fluid puncture, and 1 case through sputum study. Of the 11 isolated organisms, 9 corresponded to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB): Klebsiella spp, n 1⁄4 3; Acinetobacter baumannii, n 1⁄4 4; Morganella morganii, n 1⁄4 1; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, n 1⁄4 1. Regarding the resistance profile, 7 presented with a multiresistance profile (MDR) and extreme resistance (XDR). Univariate analysis identified the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) pretransplant score as a factor associated with developing pneumonia (P < .001, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.872e10.167), and early extubation, before 8 hours posttransplant, as a protective factor (P 1⁄4 .008; relative risk [RR] 0.124; 95% CI 0 .041e0.377). Hospital stay was longer in patients with pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia (P < .0001, 95% CI 17.79e43.11 days). There was also an increased risk of death in patients with pneumonia (RR 17.963; 95% CI 5106e63,195).

Conclusions. Early bacterial pneumonia after hepatic transplantation is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. At our center, 4 of 9 patients had bacteremia. GNB cases with MDR and XDR profiles are predominant. Early extubation is a protective factor.

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